[323] Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger, who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov, who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy". It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism. The essays shared the orientation of a cultural critique, challenging the developing German culture suggested by Schopenhauer and Wagner. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes a master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits. To comprehend eternal recurrence, and to not only come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati, "love of fate". Amidst renewed bouts of illness, living in near-isolation after a falling out with his mother and sister regarding Salomé, Nietzsche fled to Rapallo, where he wrote the first part of Also Sprach Zarathustra in only ten days. Nietzsche. Yet they offer other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to women, including Wagner's wife Cosima Wagner. After graduation in September 1864,[60] Nietzsche began studying theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn in the hope of becoming a minister. [187], Nietzsche saw slave morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht), which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. "[77] Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler [de] has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history and philosophy by claiming that he was homosexual. [183] Philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre put Nietzsche in a high place in the history of philosophy. "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. [citation needed], Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. The overman is the meaning of the earth. Ausgewählte Korrespondenz. Nietzsche called for exceptional people not to be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. [147] One theory blames Salomé's view on sexuality as one of the reasons for her alienation from Nietzsche. The three traveled with Salomé's mother through Italy and considered where they would set up their "Winterplan" commune. Although most commentators regard his breakdown as unrelated to his philosophy, Georges Bataille dropped dark hints ("'Man incarnate' must also go mad")[114] and René Girard's postmortem psychoanalysis posits a worshipful rivalry with Richard Wagner. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own conditions without despising themselves. Oltre l'abisso. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Nagsurat hiya hin … His books remained largely unsold. [57] The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, and more "German" writers. Nehamas shows that this interpretation exists totally independently of physics and does not presuppose the truth of cosmology. Nietzsche also met Franz Overbeck, a professor of theology who remained his friend throughout his life. [63] In June 1865, at the age of 20, Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth, who was deeply religious, a letter regarding his loss of faith. "[260] While Nietzsche never mentions Max Stirner, the similarities in their ideas have prompted a minority of interpreters to suggest a relationship between the two. [322] Bertrand Russell wrote that Nietzsche had exerted great influence on philosophers and on people of literary and artistic culture, but warned that the attempt to put Nietzsche's philosophy of aristocracy into practice could only be done by an organization similar to the Fascist or the Nazi party. "[2][126][65][127] Others do not assign him a national category. Now, with the new style of Zarathustra, his work became even more alienating, and the market received it only to the degree required by politeness. From November 1889 to February 1890, the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche, claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. ", Riley, T. A. [334] Paul Ricœur called Nietzsche one of the masters of the "school of suspicion", alongside Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own "inner law". g |last=Arena |first=Leonardo Vittorio |title=Nietzsche in China in the XXth Century |publisher=ebook |year=2012}}. [228][229][230][231] Writing about nihilism in Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche introduced a value-creating Übermensch, not as a project, but as an anti-project, the absence of any project. ... All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error",[199] and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Christian world. Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter (released in 1941 in The Double Man): "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies ... all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake. While criticizing nihilism and Nietzsche together as a sign of general decay,[184] he still commended him for recognizing psychological motives behind Kant and Hume's moral philosophy:[185], For it was Nietzsche's historic achievement to understand more clearly than any other philosopher ... not only that what purported to be appeals of objectivity were in fact expressions of subjective will, but also the nature of the problems that this posed for philosophy. The main theme in The Birth of Tragedy is that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttrieben ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts or tragedies. per ipovedenti [Corriero, Emilio Carlo] on Amazon.com.au. He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Leipzig University in March 1869, again with Ritschl's support. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. The willingness is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. Declinazioni italiane della «morte di Dio». This having to transform into perfection is—art. [211][212] As such, according to Nietzsche, the drive for conservation appears as the major motivator of human or animal behavior only in exceptions, as the general condition of life is not one of a 'struggle for existence. [June 1868] 1921. [136][137] Gotard Nietzsche, a member of the Nicki family, left Poland for Prussia. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. [306] Chaim Weizmann was a great admirer of Nietzsche; the first president of Israel sent Nietzsche's books to his wife, adding a comment in a letter that "This was the best and finest thing I can send to you. "[96] He then printed Beyond Good and Evil at his own expense. [196] Still, Nietzsche saw his philosophy as a counter-movement to nihilism through appreciation of art: Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence. Some[237] have suggested that the eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. 105–12 in, Leonard Sax, "What was the cause of Nietzsche's dementia? Nietzsche characterized this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness". The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science. Humanity still has no goal." [53][better source needed], In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg. [201] An Israeli historian who performed a statistical analysis of everything Nietzsche wrote about Jews claims that cross-references and context make clear that 85% of the negative comments are attacks on Christian doctrine or, sarcastically, on Richard Wagner. Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things and any coherent sense of objective truth. After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts. Die Philosophie des Nihilismus". One must have the strength of the overman to will the eternal recurrence. 19; III. [61] As early as his 1862 essay "Fate and History", Nietzsche had argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity,[62] but David Strauss's Life of Jesus also seems to have had a profound effect on the young man. [46][47] In his later work, he became increasingly preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome cultural and moral mores in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. "[145][146] The name Nietzsche itself is not a Polish name, but an exceptionally common one throughout central Germany, in this and cognate forms (such as Nitsche and Nitzke). To be "bad" was to be like the slaves over whom the aristocracy ruled: poor, weak, sick, pathetic—objects of pity or disgust rather than hatred. Köhler argues that Nietzsche's syphilis, which is "... usually considered to be the product of his encounter with a prostitute in a brothel in Cologne or Leipzig, is equally likely. (...) Nietzsche also used his psychological analyses to support original theories about the nature of the self and provocative proposals suggesting new values that he thought would promote cultural renewal and improve social and psychological life by comparison to life under the traditional values he criticized. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August 1900, he had another stroke during the night of 24–25 August and died at about noon on 25 August. [2] Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In the years after Nietzsche's death in 1900, his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways. Preface by Gianni Vattimo, Rowman & Littlefield, London – New York, 2016, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 08:29. 13. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1887 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1888b (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1961 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. In response, Rohde (then a professor in Kiel) and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense. One year before the publication of The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche wrote a fragment titled "On Music and Words". ", The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Kasper Niesiecki, Herbarz Polski, wyd. Pp. I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. [71] To this day, Nietzsche is still among the youngest of the tenured Classics professors on record. [277] Symons went on to compare the ideas of the two thinkers in The Symbolist Movement in Literature, while Yeats tried to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. Weber e Ni e tzsche sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche2001 (, Wahrig-Schmidt, B. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. "[206], One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche called passive nihilism, which he recognized in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. "[245] The pre-Socratic thinker Heraclitus was known for rejecting the concept of being as a constant and eternal principle of the universe and embracing "flux" and incessant change. On at least one occasion, on 23 February 1880, the usually poor Gast received 200 marks from their mutual friend, Paul Rée.